Treat Ingredients Glossary

Learn more about what makes indigo™ and Lickety Stik® treats unique, healthy treats for your pet.

Agar-Agar: A vegetarian gelatin substitute produced from a variety of seaweed vegetation. It is sold in health food stores in both flake and powder varieties and can be used in a variety of dairy-free and vegan recipes as a stabilizing and thickening agent.

Alanine: An amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases Immunity, and provides energy for muscle tissue, brain, and the central nervous system.

Alfalfa Nutrient Concentrate: Provides natural pigments and nutritional performance to your pet’s diet. Leaves of the alfalfa plant are rich in minerals and nutrients, including calcium, magnesium, potassium, and carotene, as well as vitamins E and K. Known for their appetite stimulant properties and as overall tonics, Chinese medicine makes use of alfalfa leaves to treat disorders related to the digestive tract and the kidneys.

Algae Meal: This fatty acid has been scientifically proven to help in the development of a dog’s central nervous system and visual development.

Annatto Extract: A spice and a natural color that is derived from the achiote shrub. Annatto is popularly used as a food color and dye and is also a good flavor enhancer. It has a beautiful red color which is helpful in bringing red and orange colors to a number of recipes.

Ascorbic Acid: A naturally occurring form of vitamin C with antioxidant properties. It is used in pet foods as a natural preservative.

back to top

Beets: Beets are high in nutrients and low in calories. As a good source of vitamin C and an excellent source of antioxidant manganese, this vegetable is rich in antioxidants. Beets provide a great source of fiber and are particularly rich in folate, an important B vitamin for a healthy heart and for normal tissue growth. Beets contain good amounts of iron, potassium, magnesium, and more.

Blueberries: Blueberries are rich in vitamin A and C, potassium, fiber, and various carotenoids which are valuable antioxidants. Blueberries provide flavor, taste, and color.

Blueberry Powder: Made from freeze-dried whole blueberries. Blueberries rank highest among all berries in antioxidants. In addition to vitamin C, blueberries are also high in fiber and low in calories.

Brewer’s Dried Yeast: A supplemental source of high quality protein and B-Vitamins. Brewer’s yeast has long been used for dogs as a dietary supplement and is believed to boost the immune system and repel fleas.

Brown Sugar: A sucrose sugar product with a distinctive brown color due to the presence of molasses. It is either an unrefined or partially refined soft sugar consisting of sugar crystals with some residual molasses content, or it is produced by the addition of molasses to refined white sugar (so-called Molasses Sugar). Brown sugar has a slightly lower caloric value by mass than white sugar.
We include brown sugar in our Smokehouse Strips because fresh meat requires some type of preservative in order to store it without refrigeration. When it comes to preservatives, we went the all-natural route – brown sugar, sea salt, green tea extract, and rosemary extract. In contrast, you’ll see other meaty treats using preservatives like citric acid, mixed tocopherols, or ascorbic acid. Sugar works naturally to kill and inhibit bacterial growth, and, along with the vacuum seal, works to keep these treats tasty and safe.

back to top

Canola Oil: Made from the seeds of an edible form of the rapeseed plant, canola oil has more omega-3 fatty acids than olive oil.

Celery: Celery is an excellent source of Vitamin C and fiber. It is a very good source of potassium and sodium to help regulate body fluids and contains polyacetylene, a powerful anti-inflammatory. Celery helps lower bad cholesterol and is a good source of folic acid, calcium, and vitamin B1, B2, and B6.

Chicken: A highly digestible lean protein source that provides essential amino acids, fatty acids, and certain minerals for muscle development, organ function, and energy.

Citric Acid: A weak organic acid that acts as a natural preservative. It is also used in human foods and soft drinks to add an acidic or sour taste.

Condensed Cultured Skim Milk: Cultured milk products (a fermented milk derivative) are good sources for probiotics. The benefits of probiotics include intestinal tract health, aiding with allergy resistance, immune system heath, aiding with urogenital tract disorders and lactose intolerance, and limited potential in the treatment and prevention of cancer. The fermentation process increases the shelf life of the product, adds to the taste, and improves digestibility. Additionally, the increased acidity of fermented milk prevents the growth of harmful bacteria. The process of fermentation increases the amounts of some vitamins, specifically energetic B vitamins. Lacto-fermentation also increases the bioavailability of nutrients. Many different substances produced by lactobacilli (lactic acid bacteria) inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms without harming other lactobacilli and body cells. For lactose intolerant pets, there is little chance of an upset stomach. Milk by itself is not bad for pets when consumed in limited quantities, and the milk remaining in these cultures is very limited.

Copper Proteinate: Copper proteinate is a source of copper, which is chelated with amino acids to improve the bioavailability. Copper is a mineral that has many roles, including reducing cellular damage caused by free radicals, synthesis of hemoglobin, and the synthesis of collagen.

Cranberries: An antioxidant that fights free radicals (toxins) in the body. This natural acidifier contributes to urinary tract health, preventing bacterial infection in the urinary tract and aiding in the prevention of struvite crystals in the bladder and urethra. Cranberries have long been valued for their role in treating urinary tract infections. Loaded with potent antioxidant properties, cranberries are a rich source of flavonoids, natural compounds that help fight aging, heart disease, and cancer.

back to top

Dextrose: A simple sugar that acts as a major source of fuel for cells in the canine or human body.

Dried Beet Pulp: A byproduct of sugar beet processing, beet pulp itself is low in sugar. Studies also show that beet pulp is an excellent fiber source and it promotes a healthy digestive tract.

Dried Egg Product: A dehydrated form of shell-free eggs and a source of high quality protein and fatty acids. It is a complete protein source providing all the essential amino acids contributing to growth and muscle development. The fatty acid profile includes arachidonic acid and omega 6 fatty acids associated with healthy skin and coat. The eggs used in PetSafe products are whole and fresh from USDA approved facilities.

Dried Enterococcus Faecium Fermentation Product: Natural micro-flora or friendly bacteria, commonly referred to as probiotics, that may help the digestion process. They provide more efficient utilization of food and produce bacteriocins which act as natural antibiotics. Our probiotics are specialized varieties selected for heat tolerance resulting in a treat with more viable (live) microorganisms than many comparable foods.

Dried Lactobacillus Acidophilus Fermentation Product: The most common natural micro-flora or friendly bacteria used in foods. Like other probiotics, these organisms may help the digestion process, thus providing more efficient utilization of food and produce bacteriocins, which act as natural antibiotics. Our probiotics are specialized varieties selected for heat tolerance resulting in a treat with more viable (live) microorganisms than many comparable foods.

Dried Lactobacillus Casei Fermentation Product: Natural micro-flora or friendly bacteria, commonly referred to as probiotics that may help the digestion process. They provide more efficient utilization of food and produce bacteriocins which act as natural antibiotics. Our probiotics are specialized varieties selected for heat tolerance resulting in a treat with more viable (live) microorganisms than many comparable foods.

Dried Whole Milk: Dried whole milk is a good source of essential amino acids, vitamin D, calcium, protein, omega 3 fat, potassium, alpha linolenic acid, and vitamin A.

back to top

Egg Shell Meal: Eggshells are a natural way to boost your dog's intake of bone-friendly nutrients. One eggshell provides enough extra calcium for the whole day. Receiving the right amount of calcium can also prevent arthritis in your pup.

Eucalyptus Oil: Eucalyptus oil is extremely esteemed for its therapeutic properties and has gained ground as one of the naturally existing antiseptic, anti-bacterial essential oils. Widely preferred for its aromatic effect, this earthy, woody, sweet-smelling oil has been used to relieve stress and calm the mind. Its powerful germicidal properties effectively wipe out staphylococcus bacteria. Eucalyptus oil is especially beneficial against oral ailments and is found to be effective against cavities, dental plaques, gingivitis, and other dental infections.

back to top

Fructooligosaccharide (FOS): Plant sugars that occur in a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and cereals. In addition to improving the digestibility of various food components, FOS may also improve absorption of dietary calcium, iron, and other important minerals.

Fruit Juices: The juices are from watermelon and huito berries, a plant native to South America, southern Mexico, and the Caribbean. Watermelon is rich in vitamins C and A. Huito is a good source of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin C. These juices give indigo treats their unique natural blue color.

back to top

Gelatin: A protein substance derived from collagen, a natural protein present in the tendons, ligaments, and tissues of mammals.

Glucosamine Hydrochloride: Glucosamine is an amino sugar that occurs naturally in the joints of humans and animals. It may help improve flexibility and reduce joint pain. It is extracted from shellfish (shrimp and crabs).

Green Tea Extract: Green tea extracts contain antioxidants to boost the immune system and help your dog stay healthy.

Ground Flaxseed: Contains flax seed oil, which is one of the richest sources of the essential omega 3 fatty acids (linolenic acid). Flax is a good source of essential amino acids and contains all the essential vitamins and minerals required by dogs. Flax is beneficial for its anti-inflammatory effect and has been known to help arthritis and prevent cancer. Flax seed is also a great fiber source that aids digestion and an excellent source of omega 3 & 6 fatty acids that promote healthy skin and coat.

back to top

Hemicellulose Extract: The additive is used as a source of metabolizable energy. As percent content of hemicellulose increases in dog treats, the voluntary feed intake decreases.

back to top

L-Ascorbyl-2-Polyphosphate: A source of vitamin C, an antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals.

L-Carnitine: L-Carnitine is a vitamin-like compound made in the body from the amino acids lysine and methionine. It increases fat metabolism, lowers cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and promotes enhanced endurance. It is found in animal-based sources of protein. L-Carnitine has been used to help with fat metabolism, and recent studies suggest that it helps reduce weight.

Lettuce: Depending on the variety, lettuce is a good source of vitamin A, vitamin K, and potassium, with higher concentrations of vitamin A found in darker green lettuces. It also provides some dietary fiber, carbohydrates, protein, and a small amount of fat. With the exception of the iceberg type, lettuce also provides some vitamin C, calcium, iron, and copper.

Lecithin: A fatty substance found in animal and plant tissues. It is also naturally produced in the human body by the liver. Lecithin can be found in soybeans (called plant lecithin), eggs, and in high cholesterol or fatty meats such as beef or liver.

back to top

Manganese Proteinate: Manganese proteinate is a source of manganese, which is chelated with amino acids to improve the bioavailability. Manganese has a vital role in the proper function of cells within the body. It is necessary for the formation of bone and joint cartilage and neurological function.

Maple Syrup: Sap from sugar maple or various other species of maple trees. It consists primarily of sucrose and water with small amounts of other sugars. Maple syrup is similar to sugar with respect to calorie content but is also a source of manganese.

Medium-Chain Triglyceride: Triglycerides are a form of fat found in food and in the body. Medium-chain triglycerides contain 8-12 carbons. Medium- chain triglycerides are a naturally occurring fat found in coconut oil, butter, and palm oil. They are more water-soluble than the two long-chained types of triglycerides and are a quick energy source.

Mixed Tocopherols: An excellent source of vitamin E that helps maintain normal heart and joint function. It’s also a powerful antioxidant to protect against cell damage from free radicals, which are cancer-causing agents.

Mono & Diglycerides: Fats commonly derived from beef, pork, or vegetable sources that are added to commercial food products to act as emulsifiers, helping to mix ingredients such as oil and water that otherwise would not blend well.

back to top

Natural Chicken Flavor: Liquefied or dried chicken tissue that is used as a flavor enhancer.

Natural Flavors: The parts of processed fruits, vegetables, spices, or fermentation products that are used for flavoring.

Natural Liquid Smoke: A substance produced from smoke passed through a tube from a combustion chamber filled with select wood chips to a condenser. In the condenser, the smoke cools and forms a liquid, aided by the addition of water. Liquid smoke is used for both food preservation and flavoring. Liquid smoke can be used as a seasoning to add a smoky flavor to various foods, similar to a barbecue flavor in human foods.

back to top

Parsley: Fresh parsley is an herb that reduces urinary tract inflammation, aids in digestion, and increases renal function to help the body dispose of excessive fluid with increased urine production. It also contains antioxidant-rich vitamins A and C.

Pea Starch: A grain-free alternative common in vegetarian diets. It acts as a binder to make the food stronger and hold all ingredients together when baked.

Peppermint: Used around the world to soothe an upset stomach, aid digestion, and treat respiratory problems and headaches. Peppermint calms the stomach and improves the flow of bile to help digest fats. Its antiseptic properties mean it’s great for curing halitosis (bad breath). It contains omega 3 fatty acids, vitamins A and C, magnesium, iron, calcium, and potassium.

Potato Starch: A form of carbohydrate with similar health benefits as fiber.

Potassium Sorbate: One of the safest and most commonly used preservatives today. It increases shelf life and reduces the risk of food-borne illnesses without adversely affecting taste, color, or flavor.

Powdered Cellulose: An insoluble dietary fiber that is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless powder produced from naturally occurring plants components. Insoluble fiber is important in supporting digestive regularity.

Phosphoric Acid: Commonly used as a preservative in foods and beverages.

back to top

Rosemary Extract: Rosemary is a natural herb that enhances the flavor of foods. Rosemary extract is a natural preservative that is known to help protect against cancer.

Rice Flour: Made from finely ground rice, it is a carbohydrate alternative to wheat or corn. Rice flour is a safe alternative grain for dogs with wheat allergies.

back to top

Sea Salt: Salt produced from the evaporation of seawater. It is often used in cooking and cosmetics. The sodium chloride in sea salt maintains the cellular environment and prevents cells from swelling or dehydrating. It is also important for maintaining proper nerve and muscle cell function.

Sodium Hexametaphosphate (SHMP or HMP): A natural compound used as a sequestrate, thickener, emulsifier, and texturizer in a variety of human foods. It’s also used in pet foods and treats for its oral hygiene benefits. HMP binds with calcium in plaque, allowing it to be carried away in the dog’s saliva and preventing the formation of calculus (tartar). It also contains phosphorus, which is an essential nutrient. Widely used and considered safe, HMP can be found in human toothpaste, beverages, frozen dairy desserts, jams, and infant formulas.
Studies in rats, dogs, and humans have shown no health hazards associated with HMP ingestion. Other dog treats with HMP include Excel Dental Biscuits, 8 in 1 Breath Mints, and Twistix. Some kibbles from brands including Iams and Eukanuba also contain HMP.

Sorbic Acid: A naturally occurring food preservative often called vitamin C on food labels.

Spearmint: The least pungent species of mint, spearmint is widely used for its mild and fresh flavor. It is also recognized as a remedy for an upset stomach, headache, or respiratory problem. It is rich in antioxidants including vitamins A, B-6, and C, potassium, manganese, and iron.

Spinach: Spinach is exceptionally rich in carotenoids, including beta-carotene and lutein, and also contains quercetin, a phytochemical with powerful antioxidant protection. Spinach is also a good source of magnesium and manganese. Research shows that glycoglycerolipids from spinach can help protect the lining of the digestive tract from damage, especially when related to inflammation.

Sunflower Oil: From sunflower seeds, this oil is high in vitamin E and linoleic acids, plus an omega 6 acid that helps lower bad cholesterol.

Sweet Potato: An excellent source of potassium, B vitamins, and beta-carotene. They provide phytochemicals and carotenoids, sources of antioxidant agents providing natural protection against free radicals, which are cancer-causing agents.

back to top

Tapioca: Derived from the cassava plant, it is a root vegetable and a healthy source of carbohydrates. In many countries, it serves as a main dish because of its high starch content. Even better, it is considered a healthy starch because it is low in cholesterol and unhealthy fats.

Titanium Dioxide: A naturally occurring color additive widely used as a food whitener in human and pet foods. Titanium dioxide is added to whiten the indigo mixture so that other natural colors, such as the blue from the blueberries and fruit juices, are more apparent.

back to top

Vegetable Oil: Vegetable oil contains omega-6 fatty acids, which promote a healthy coat.

Vitamin E Supplement: This supplement is added to almost all pet foods as a vitamin source. It is sometimes labeled as d-alpha-Tocopherol acetate. It is a fat soluble vitamin, which is required in your pet’s diet. Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant that helps improve circulation and cardiac output.

back to top

Xanthan Gum: A stabilizer to keep the ingredients from readily separating. Xanthan gum is commonly found in human foods like fruit juices, condiments, and dairy products.

back to top

Yeast Extract: The common name for various forms of processed yeast products made by extracting the cell contents (removing the cell walls). They are used as food additives, flavorings, or nutrients for bacterial cultures.

back to top

Zinc Proteinate: Zinc proteinate is a source of zinc, which is chelated with amino acids to improve the bioavailability. Zinc is a fundamental element involved in skin and coat health and wound healing.

back to top